California Indians practiced resource management at four levels of biological organization: the organism, the population, the plant community, and the landscape, They used resource management techniques at each of these levels, or scales, to promote the persistence of individual plants, plant populations, animal populations, plant associations, and habitat relationships in many different vegetation types in California. The techniques in the Indians’ repertoire included burning, irrigating, coppicing, pruning, sowing, tilling, transplanting, and weeding. All of these techniques, especially burning, represented a disturbance; by applying them in various ecosystems, Indians became agents of controlled, culturally mediated disturbance, using it to maintain plant populations of special importance and habitat diversity.

M Kat Anderson, “Tending the Wild”

M Kat Anderson, “Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources” page 135

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