The algorithmic system extends the significance of those categories beyond specific contingent contexts into the sorts of situations that can occur anywhere at anytime online, even without human presence — discrimination occurs whenever the database is queried, with systems generating what Cheney-Lippold calls “just-in-time identities … made, ad hoc.” They project hierarchical interpretations of categories into scenarios where it might not even occur to human agents to discriminate. There is nothing, for example, to stop online retailers from exercising price discrimination based on who knows what basis. One can imagine banks or real estate agents operating on similar lines, where the representatives themselves can’t explain why certain candidates have been turned down. (Frank Pasquale details this sort of “black-box scoring” in The Black Box Society.)