In The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace (1987) Scott Peck argues that the almost accidental sense of community that exists at times of crisis can be consciously built. Peck believes that conscious community building is a process of deliberate design based on the knowledge and application of certain rules. He states that this process goes through four stages:
- Pseudocommunity: When people first come together, they try to be "nice" and present what they feel are their most personable and friendly characteristics.
- Chaos: People move beyond the inauthenticity of pseudo-community and feel safe enough to present their "shadow" selves.
- Emptiness: Moves beyond the attempts to fix, heal and convert of the chaos stage, when all people become capable of acknowledging their own woundedness and brokenness, common to human beings.
- True community: Deep respect and true listening for the needs of the other people in this community.