In 1992, Pask summarized the differences between the old and the new cybernetics (second order) as a shift in emphasis:
> ... from information to coupling
> ... from the reproduction of "order-from-order" (Schroedinger 1944) to the generation of "order-from-noise" (von Foerster 1960)
> ... from transmission of data to conversation
> ... from external to participant observation – an approach that could be assimilated to Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis.