California Indians embraced a different concept of ownership, one based on usufruct rights. Under this conception, if an area is used and tended, it becomes the domain of the gatherer. For example, throughout California, individuals or families repeatedly gathered from and cared for specific oak trees and groves, giving them usufruct rights to those resources. Under the usufruct system, each family had a combination of exclusive rights to certain resources, and communal rights to other resources

M Kat Anderson, “Tending the Wild”

M Kat Anderson, “Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources” page 133

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