"Design historians Ellen Lupton and J. Abbott Miller have gone so far as to interpret streamlining as an "excretory aesthetic" because the ideal streamlined form so closely resembles the products of bodily elimination, and because the first major industrial design style, it encouraged the production of waste through planned obsolescence and the processes of consumer purchasing and discarding" Lupton and Miller, The Bathroom, the Kitchen, and the Aesthetics of Waste, 65, 67