An intense and even violent nationalist reaction centered among those who lose status, income, and power when what they consider to be their “ordinary life” is disrupted by political devolution and new market arrangements. Among the features of this reaction:
a. suspicion of and opposition to globalization, free trade, “foreign” ownership and penetration of local economies;
b. hostility to immigration, especially of groups that are visibly different from the former national group;
c. popular hatred of the information elite, rich people, the well-educated, and complaints about capital flight and disappearing jobs;
d. extreme measures by nationalists intent upon halting the secession of individuals and regions from faltering nationstates, including resort to wars and acts of “ethnic cleansing” that reinforce nationalist identification with the state and rationalize the state’s claims on people and their resources.