Wormholes in virtual space: From cognitive maps to cognitive graphs - ScienceDirect
Lukas W

Humans and other animals build up spatial knowledge of the environment on the basis of visual information and path integration. We compare three hypotheses about the geometry of this knowledge of navigation space: (a) 'cognitive map' with metric Euclidean structure and a consistent coordinate system, (b) 'topological graph' or network of paths between places, and (c) 'labelled graph' incorporating local metric information about path lengths and junction angles.