Convivial tools are those which give each person who uses them the greatest opportunity to enrich the environment with the fruits of his or her vision. Industrial tools deny this possibility to those who use them and they allow their designers to determine the meaning and expectations of others.


Tools foster conviviality to the extent to which they can be easily used, by anybody, as often or as seldom as desired, for the accomplishment of a purpose chosen by the user. The use of such tools by one person does not restrain another from using them equally. They do not require previous certification of the user.


It is probable that even in an overwhelmingly convivial world some communities would choose greater affluence at the cost of some restrictions on creativity.

convivial tool (definition by Illich)

from Tools for Conviviality (Ivan Illich)

(mostly) sunny