"It's only within critical subcultures that transgressive reinscriptions are going to make a difference." We can wonder whether fandom is the kind of subculture they are looking for, one that does not cite existing patterns but practices something altogether new, and thereby manages to create an effective, subversive parody. In early fan studies research, fandom was often depicted as subversive because it goes against the commercial media industry and offers a more feminist space in which to rework narratives (e.g., Jenkins 1992; Bacon-Smith 1992).

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