Causal Inference With Python Part 1 - Potential Outcomes

One day a team lead notices that some members of their team wear cool hats, and that these members of the team tend to be less productive. Being data drive, the Team Lead starts to record whether or not a team member wears a cool hat ($X=1$ for a cool hat, $X=0$ for no cool hat) and whether or not they are productive ($Y=1$ for productive, $Y=0$ for unproductive).