The theory is that the process of making art hones not only observation but also judgment and action, so that students who acquire intelligence through art both notice what is happening around them and develop individual responses to it. In Rice’s words, “The artist thinks about what he himself is going to do, does it himself, and then reflects upon the thing that he himself has done. By encouraging both self-reflection and the translation of thought into action, pedagogy at Black Mountain began with art to end with democracy.