Due to the large number of dependencies, interconnected infrastructure and the planetary scale of technology systems, any digital system must be evaluated as Pre or Post-Threshold. That is, the threshold when these software systems exhibit the behaviors that define “complex systems”.
This is not necessarily an absolute. More or less of the total surface area of a software system may ebb and flow within or beyond the Threshold, at different times.
As more of the system breaches this Threshold, the less predictable and more uncontrollable it becomes.