Due to the large number of dependencies, interconnected infrastructure and the planetary scale of technology systems, any digital system must be evaluated as Pre or Post-Threshold. That is, the threshold when these software systems exhibit the behaviors that define “complex systems”.

This is not necessarily an absolute. More or less of the total surface area of a software system may ebb and flow within or beyond the Threshold, at different times.

As more of the system breaches this Threshold, the less predictable and more uncontrollable it becomes.

Digital Systems and the Threshold of Complexity
Alex Singh