Nevertheless, many of these models
encoded human prejudice, misunderstanding, and bias into the software
systems that increasingly managed our lives. Like gods, these mathemati-
cal models were opaque, their workings invisible to all but the highest
priests in their domain: mathematicians and computer scientists. Their
verdicts, even when wrong or harmful, were beyond dispute or appeal.
And they tended to punish the poor and the oppressed in our society,
while making the rich richer.7