Here, the similarities are that languages of "the other" are
indeed often used in shamanistic ritual. For example, the Chukchi shamanistic songs in
Bogoras (1900) often contain Yupik words (Weinstein 2004: 299-300). There is a
gênerai tendency for the language of "the other" to be considered more spiritually
powerful than one's own

Char Stiles