Machine Learning Using Digitized Herbarium Specimens to Advance Phenological Research

Seasonal variation in the timing of life cycle (phenological) events (e.g., leaf-out, flowering, and fruiting) critically affects plant ecology and evolution through interactions between plants and climate (Cleland et al. 2007), herbivores (Meineke et al. 2014), mutualists (Diamond et al. 2014), and inter- and intraspecific competitors (Heberling et al. 2019).