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American literary theorist Kenneth Burke described metonymy as one of four "master tropes": metaphor, a substitute for perspective; metonymy, a substitute for reduction; synecdoche, a substitute for representation; and irony, a substitute for dialectic. He described these tropes and the way they overlap in A Grammar of Motives.

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 4 hours ago

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Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 7 hours ago

Employ your time in improving yourself by other men’s writings, so that you shall gain easily what others have labored hard for.
— Socrates

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 8 hours ago

Not only do some of these genetic “hot spots” seem to be linked to many forms of autism, but some of them have a deep and significant evolutionary history. If you trace them back in time, as Evan Eichler’s laboratory has begun to do, you can begin to glimpse the emergence of precisely the traits that distinguish humans from all other animals. “It’s kind of a crazy idea,” Eichler says, “but it’s like autism is the price we pay for having an evolved human species.”

This suggests that the extra copies of the BOLA2 gene, which predispose people to neurodevelopmental disorders like autism, must also confer some genetic benefit to the human species. Otherwise, evolutionary pressure would have scrubbed the duplications out of the genome. In other words, the same duplications that can lead to autism may also create what Eichler calls genetic “nurseries” in which new gene variants arise that enhance cognition or some other human trait.

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 13 hours ago

Dr Rebekah Rogers of the University of California, Berkeley, who led the research, said the mammoths' genomes "were falling apart right before they went extinct". This, she said, was the first case of "genomic meltdown" in a single species. "You had this last refuge of mammoths after everything has gone extinct on the mainland," she added. "The mathematical theories that have been developed said that they should accumulate bad mutations because natural selection should become very inefficient."

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 14 hours ago

“Adoption and contraception, like reading, mathematics, and stress-induced illness, are products of an animal that is living in an environment radically different from the one in which its genes were naturally selected.”

― Richard Dawkins, The Extended Phenotype

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 14 hours ago

EVERY ACT OF CONSCIOUS LEARNING REQUIRES THE WILLINGNESS TO SUFFER AN INJURY TO ONE’S SELF ESTEEM. THAT IS WHY YOUNG CHILDREN, BEFORE THEY ARE AWARE OF THEIR OWN SELF-IMPORTANCE, LEARN SO EASILY; AND WHY OLDER PERSONS, ESPECIALLY IF VAIN OR IMPORTANT, CANNOT LEARN AT ALL.

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 14 hours ago

…the fact is that there is nothing as dreamy and poetic, nothing as radical, subversive, and psychedelic, as mathematics.

Mathematics is the purest of the arts, as well as the most misunderstood.

– Paul Lockhart, A Mathematician’s Lament

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

Storytelling reveals meaning without committing the error of defining it.

Hannah Arendt

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

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Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

So, when I say ‘For every argument there is an equal and opposite one,’ I am in effect saying ‘For every argument I have considered, which purports to establish something dogmatically, it seems to me that there is another argument purporting to establish something dogmatically, which is opposite to it, and which is equally plausible or implausible.’

Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

Aristotle, another ancient philosopher complained, “surrounds the difficulty of his subject with the obscurity of his language, and thus avoids refutation—producing darkness, like a squid, in order to make himself hard to capture.”

The Consuming Fervor of "Arrival"

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

In order to achieve serenity, the sceptic started philosophising about the fact that he evaluated his sensory images, and realised that some were true and some were false. He then fell into contradictions between equally good arguments on either side, and not being able to decide one way or the other, he suspended judgment. Finally, suspension of judgment led by fate to serenity in matters of opinion. Someone who believes that anything is objectively good or evil is perpetually disturbed. When he lacks the things he thinks good, he thinks he is being tormented by things which are objectively bad, and he strives after things which are good (as he thinks). But when he has obtained them, he falls into even greater disturbance because of his irrational and immoderate elation; and fearing a reversal of fortune, he does everything to avoid losing the things which seem good to him. But the person who has come to no opinion as to which things are objectively good or evil puts no effort into avoiding or striving after them. This is because he is in a state of serenity.
- Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Added by Chad Mazzola
Updated 15 hours ago

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