...Pierre Bourdieu, claimed that academic language was 'a dead language', because it was 'no-one's mother tongue, not even that of the children of the cultivated class' (Bourdieu, Passeron and de Saint Martin, 1996, p. 8) (p. 40)
Japanese love to talk about their experiences of haji, and even loudly exclaim "Hazukashii!" not only when they are "ashamed" and "disgraced," but also when they feel "embarrassed," "bashful," "awkward," and perhaps, "socially inept."
Hazukashii, in other words, encompasses all kinds of occasions in which the presentation of one's social self has been breached. This breach of self-presentation may range from grave to trivial, but it happens to just about everyone on a daily basis in a society where the rules of appropriate conduct are rather narrowly defined. It is curious, however, that instead of trying to conceal such experiences they are publicly announced and actively shared.
"Shame culture" tolerates human faults as only "situational," and does not condemn the entire person when his or her conduct is less than perfect. Thus, by exclaiming "hazukashii" and making their shame, embarrassment or social blooper shared knowledge, Japanese can, in fact, strengthen their connections with others and lessen the burden on their souls
When I sit down to make my stories I know very well that I want to take the reader by the throat, break her heart, and heal it again...I cannot sort out myself, say this part is for the theorist, this is for the poet, this is for the editor, and this is for the wayward ethnographer who only wants to document my experience (Dorothy Allison, Skin: Talking About Sex, Class and Literature.) (p. 161)
“The unread story is not a story; it is little black marks on wood pulp. The reader, reading it, makes it live: a live thing, a story.” (Ursula K. LeGuin)
American literary theorist Kenneth Burke described metonymy as one of four "master tropes": metaphor, a substitute for perspective; metonymy, a substitute for reduction; synecdoche, a substitute for representation; and irony, a substitute for dialectic. He described these tropes and the way they overlap in A Grammar of Motives.