Considering Race and Space: Mapping Developmental Approaches for Providing Culturally Responsive Advising
By Roland W. Mitchell, Gerald K. Wood, Noelle Witherspoon

A literature review of Race, Space, and Discourse
The Problems with a standardized approach to advising a diverse group of students
Race space and academic advising
Contradictory institutional massages about advising
Understanding the production of a racially coded space in an advising office
Concluding thoughts

A literature review of Race, Space, and Discourse
- critical geographers have theorized space, both physically and conceptually, through social relations and social practice in particular social spaces (Helfenbein, 2006; Lefebvre, 1991).
The Problems with a standardized approach to advising a diverse group of students
- In critical geography, space is defined as a product of social relations that reflects the hegemony of dominant ideologies (Lefebvre, 1991)
- (a) spatial practices, (b) representations of space, and (c) representational spaces.

Race space and academic advising
- it is possible to identify the spatial practices and representations of space that impact a student’s understandings of the student advising office as a racially coded space

Contradictory institutional massages about advising
- We apply Lefebvre’s (1991) concept of critical geography and Foucault’s (1977) discussion of the Panopticon to a specific advising session between a black advisor and a black student and provide a means to analyze this norming and subsequent racialization of space within the constraints of a prescriptive approach to advising.

Understanding the production of a racially coded space in an advising office
- Foucault (1977) described the power associated with the Panopticon as:
Space tends to be divided into as many sections as there are bodies or elements distributed. One must eliminate the effects of imprecise distributions, the uncontrolled disappearance of individuals . . . Its aim was to establish presences and absences, to know where and how to locate individuals . . . to be able at each moment to supervise the conduct of each individual, to assess it, to judge it, to calculate its qualities or merits. (p. 143)

Concluding thoughts

Considering Race and Space: Mapping Dev…

From ‘‘Home’’ to ‘‘Camp’’: Theorizing the Space of Safety
By Lisa Weems

Space, Assemblage and the Educational Family ‘Home’
The Space of ‘‘Camp:’’ Staking the Theoretical Landscape for a New Metaphor

Abstract
- the advantage of the metaphor of classroom as camp allows for a more capacious range of past histories of association, from recreation to temporary inhabitation to forced relocation, thus foregrounding the innate political implications of theorizing space
- the metaphor of camp implies transience (whether real or imaginary) while keeping in mind the partial and situated nature of particular places and spaces. Foregrounding the transient component/feature of safe space allows us to make visible and explore the possibilities and limitations of conceptualizing relations of power as circuitous, contested and performative through competing claims to particular places as objects of safety.
- educational spaces that are presumed or designed to promote equity, inclusion and/or social justice, the space of the classroom is itself a contested object.
- if school is imagined to feel like home, one may approach the classroom space quite differently than if school is imagined to feel like prison. Whereas the former conjures emotions such as care and openness towards others, the latter invokes feelings of fear, anger or perhaps resentment. However, what emotions might be invoked if we substitute the metaphors of home and prison to make way for the image of classroom space as camp?
- I argue that in order to advance contemporary theorizing on safe space we might consider shifting the metaphor of the classroom (and/or schooling) as a situation of home (in loco parentis) to that of a metaphor of camp. As a discursive practice, ‘‘camp’’ is like ‘‘home’’ in that it has multiple associations of past histories.
- the metaphor of camp implies transience (whether real or imaginary) while keeping in mind the partial and situated nature of particular places and spaces.

Space, Assemblage and the Educational Family ‘Home’
- Liz Bondi and Joyce Davidson argue, characterizing space as "abstract geometry" and place as "sites of shared experience" conveniently ignore(s) the ways in which differences of gender, age, class, "race" and other forms of social differentiation shape peoples lives’’ (2005, 17).
- What is needed is a ‘‘geography of placement’’ (Pratt and Hanson, 1994, p. 25 quoted in Bondi and Davidson, 19) that moves beyond the ‘‘flatness of mapping’’ (Puar, 152). One such framework comes via Eyal Weizman’s concept of ‘‘the politics of verticality’’ that ‘‘oscillates from representational space to informational space, from epistemological comprehensions of space to ontological presences and experiences’’ (Puar, 152).
- the politics of verticality render space as ‘‘about networks of contact and control, of circuits that cut through’’ (Puar, 154). Central to this formulation of space, then, is the emphasis on power and control with attention to symbolic as well as material networks of bodies in contact within particular boundaries that may or may not be ‘‘visible’’ in the current geography of placement. In other words, the boundaries of the place may be sedimented yet the network of contact and control may permeate across time, place, and space.
- Thus, theorizing space must take into account the ways in which subjects are constituted by processes and practices of both ‘‘grounding’’ and ‘‘unmooring.’’ Extending this spatialization of ‘‘social life,’’ I suggest that safe space must take into account the ways in which ‘‘socially and spatially situated subjects’’ necessarily stabilize and destabilize the Progressive assemblage of educational spaces as the model ‘‘home’’ of Republication motherhood and classrooms as microcosms of US democratic ‘‘community’’ (Weems 2004).
- What is key in Deleuze and Guattari’s conception of assemblage is the emphasis on the ‘‘intermingling of bodies reacting to one another’’ and the connectivity of the ‘‘actions and passions’’ that are affixed and unfixed through enunciative events. John Philips clarifies that for Deleuze and Guattari, the assemblage refers to ‘‘the connection between a state of affairs and the statements we can make about it’’ (2006, p. 108).
- In the case of US formal schooling, the metaphor of schooling as home has been reified for centuries.
- This symbolic characterization of the school as home, coupled with the social, economic and political conditions that drive the aims of Modern schooling as democratic education for masses, has crystallized the biopolitics of creating ‘‘order’’ through classification and regulation of bodies, acts and statements of governmentality or what Popkewitz has referred to as the ‘‘cultivation of the soul’’ (1998).

The Space of ‘‘Camp:’’ Staking the Theoretical Landscape for a New Metaphor
- The first iteration considers camp in the queer drag sense - where ‘‘camp’’ is a type of performance, a carnival, hyperbole and satire. The second iteration involves camp as a place/space for extracurricular activities such as ‘‘summer camp.’’ Finally, the third iteration of camp considers the construction of a geographically bounded place of physical dwelling, which, by design is constructed as a ‘‘shelter.’’
- Given the hybridity of such spaces, we may consider camp as a form of ‘‘contact zone’’ (Pratt 2008) in which clear demarcations between social identities and stable relations of power give way to fuzzy identificatory practices that are discursively produced yet subjectively experienced.
- The notion of educational space and/or the classroom as a form of contact zone is not new
- the im/possibility of classrooms as a haven for free speech. Boler claims that ‘‘universities in general function as ‘‘white men’s clubs’’ and by default function to empower those who already hold privileged positions within the ‘‘real’’ world.’’ (2005, p. 5) Thus, she calls for critical educators to create ‘unreal’ spaces that allow students and teachers to dialogue and debate on the grounds of ‘‘affirmative action pedagogy.’’ (ibid)
- to imagine educational spaces and experiences that might inaugurate and sustain the practice of ‘‘leaving oneself ajar’’ to the possibilities of learning (Ruitenberg, 2005). In a similar vein, I suggest that the metaphor of camp may facilitate the (uncertain and unpredictable) possibilities of connection, cognitive and/or affective transformation or something we might call learning.
- spaces that are by design intended to provide psychological, physical and/or sociological ‘‘relief’’—that is the metaphorical geography or architecture of safe space.
- If the space of schools has operated from/within the assemblage of US heteronormative and racialized constructions of the family, community and national citizenship, how might a metaphor of camp be deployed to rethink the discursive practices of classrooms as ‘‘safe spaces?’’ Moreover, how might we reterratorialize the assemblage of educational space as home by unfixing its constitutive elements, and how might the metaphor of camp be useful in this project?

From "Home" to "Camp": Theorizing the S…

Ambience in social learning: student engagement with new designs for learning spaces
by Charles Crook and Gemma Mitchell

Method
Context
Procedures
- Audio diaries
- Behavioural observations
- On-task conversations
- Focus groups
Analysis
- Behavioural categories
- On-task conversations
- Focus groups
Results and discussion
- Audio diaries: general patterns of student private study
- Private study was seen as effective
- Progress was judged against environments
- Environments understood as social
- Environments experienced as disrupting
Hub area observation
- Relative occupancy
- Hub students engaged with others half the time
- Hub study involves traditional learning resources
- The Hub space is appealing, if distracting
- Hub: students reflections on studying
- Macro-spatial perception
- Micro-spatial perception
- Space for collaboration
- Space as social
- Tools
Conclusions

  • Closer scrutiny of arguments for renewing learning spaces suggests that one recurring motive is the ambition to create more favourable conditions for learning that is social (Brown, 2005; Jamieson, Fisher, Gilding, Taylor, & Trevitt, 2000).
  • many employers: They may claim that graduates enter the workplace poorly prepared for coordinating their thinking with others (Confederation of British Industry, 2009). This suggests a need for educational environments that support experience in team work.
  • if learning is made social within the virtual learning spaces of the internet, it is natural to extend such design thinking to the more physical spaces of the institutional campus: they also might become contexts for cultivating learning through social interaction and collaboration
  • social constructivist theories of knowledge (Berger and Luckman, 1966) and with conceptions of knowing as cognitively and socially ‘distributed’ (Clark, 1997). This perspective in turn complements psychological theories that stress the communual contexts of learning (Lave and Wenger, 1990; Rogoff, 2003). In this climate of thinking, educational institutions will consider how they best ‘socialise’ their environments: thereby meeting the pleas of industry, the imperatives of theory, and the communication appetites of their students.
  • a more socialised university learning environment is likely to cultivate the potential of peer-based encounters
  • Accordingly, some commentators encourage more attention to the architecture and design of places-for-learning (Goodyear, 2008; Temple, 2007). The area of an educational campus that has been most vigorously re-visited in this spirit is the library (Oblinger, 2006).
  • libraries increasingly offer space and furniture that supports collaborative interaction but also technologies that might mediate these exchanges in fresh ways.
  • there remains little direct observation of what students actually do in these spaces
  • how the actual social interactions in the present variety of learning space support or impede the experience of study and how, with experience, students self-organise their activity within learning spaces with strong affordances for social exchange.

Method

Context

Procedures
- Audio diaries
- Behavioural observations
- On-task conversations
- Focus groups
Analysis
- Behavioural categories
- On-task conversations
- Focus groups
Results and discussion
- Audio diaries: general patterns of student private study
- Private study was seen as effective
- Progress was judged against environments
- Environments understood as social
- Environments experienced as disrupting
Hub area observation
- Relative occupancy
- Hub students engaged with others half the time
- Hub study involves traditional learning resources
- The Hub space is appealing, if distracting
- Hub: students reflections on studying
- Macro-spatial perception
- Micro-spatial perception
- Space for collaboration
- Space as social
- Tools

Conclusions
- On the first point: we propose a more nuanced conception of the ‘social’ in learning. The present learning spaced design suggests four varieties of social engagement:
(1) Focused collaboration: occasions of traditional, and relatively intense joint problem solving. These are likely to be planned and strongly outcome-oriented.
(2) Intermittent exchange: whereby students convene for independent study that permits an occasional and improvised to-and-fro of questioning or commentary.
(3) Serendipitous encounter: that is, chance meetings with peers in which studyrelated issues (and perhaps other matters) are discussed briefly and on the fly.
(4) Ambient sociality: students identify the importance of simply ‘being there’ as participants in a studying community.
- Students appeared to gain inspiration or reassurance from merely being among others they knew were in a shared predicament: that is, one of intentional and systematic learning
- how institutions think about the design of spaces that best support social learning – as an experience that is grounded in the community of those institutions. Universities should explore provision of out-of-class study spaces that support the various forms of collaborative and solitary learning that we have identified here.
- there is little research that clarifies what relationships might exist between the design of study spaces and the learning outcomes of students (Woolner et al., 2007).
- The deliberate design of third places has subsequently been pursued in early educational practice by embedding areas within the institution that afford the bringing together of in-school and out-of-school discourses (e.g., Cook, 2005). However, there is no reason to suppose that these spaces are only needed in early education: the observations of this study help position them within a higher education landscape.
- The emerging configuration of internet communication resources certainly offer designs for close and intense collaboration: yet they also offer resources for more improvised and intermittent exchange that is perhaps more coordination than collaboration. In their design of new learning spaces, institutions need to create something of this mixed economy – but in bricks and mortar. This may thereby fashion a useful integration of material and digital space.

Ambience in social learning: student en…

Navigating discourses in place in the world of Webkinz
by Karen E. Wohlwend, Sarah Vander Zanden, Nicholas E. Husbye and Candace R. Kuby

Introduction
Web/toy hybrids and young children
Researching web play as discourses in place
Navigating the world of Webkinz
- Research context
- Social actors and Webkinz Club practices
Interaction order and attempts to play together in an online with
Reading screens for visual semiotics
Mapping modes in place of semiotics
- Speech and sound
- Proximity and space-time
Discourses in place
- Discourse of adult authority
- Web 2.0 discourse
Playing around barriers in virtual worlds
- Barriers to establishing an online with
- Navigating discourses in place
Conclusion

Introduction
- Webkinz (Ganz), a toy-based social networking and gaming website, to understand how young children’s navigation of avatars within a virtual world engages two key aspects of participatory culture, collaboration and online connectivity, with varying degrees of success.
- ways children mediate space-time in their attempts to connect in an online ‘club’, a place that blurs distinctions between digital communities and here-and-now friendships, between animated screen characters and inanimate stuffed toys, between schoolwork and after-school play, and between the discourses that circulate in classrooms and gamer communities.

Web/toy hybrids and young children
- restrict access to consumers who have purchased a Webkinz toy.
- play in this online community through animated avatars that match the purchased stuffed animals, producing hybrids that represent children and their toy pets
- when children play Webkinz in the same space such as an afterschool club, they can work around website restrictions to connect with other players through online avatars as children sit side by side in front of computer monitors.
- Numerous studies show that many pre-teens and adolescents access social media and easily engage spatialized literacies (Leander and Sheehy, 2004) that blur boundaries across time and space in complex digital networks and interactive environments (Leander and McKim, 2003).
- These sites operate according to a Web 2.0 discourse that ‘values and promotes three interlocking functions or practices: participation, collaboration, and distribution’ (Knobel and Wilbur, 2009: 21) as users meet, chat, play games, and share information.
- the need for research that examines the identity work in the complicated mesh of play, children’s desires, consumer practices, and corporate agendas. Burke and Rowsell (2007) focussed specifically on digital practices in Webkinz, using an adapted literacy framework to chart complex practices in young children’s readings of screen designs and discursive structures.

Researching web play as discourses in place
- This geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children’s web play as discourses in place: fluidly converging and diverging interactions among four factors: (1) social actors, (2) interaction order, (3) visual semiotics, and (4) place semiotics. Frustrations and disruptions caused by discourses in place are apparent in the following excerpt of Webkinz play in an afterschool program for young children.
- children taught each other to navigate to the same screen. A nexus is a dense knot of actions that served as a tacit marker of membership and expertise in the computer room peer culture.
- to see how children made sense and made use of the print, image and other modes on screen and in the surrounding environment. Norris’ (2004)1 interactional approach to multimodal analysis looks at how meanings are shaped as our attention shifts among modes, the intertwining aspects of lived interaction among actors, materials, and environments.

Navigating the world of Webkinz
Research context
- Children independently logged in and selected from a range of available activities that included earning KinzCash by playing arcade games or performing jobs such as making hamburgers, meeting other players at the Kinz Clubhouse to chat or play games such as checkers or bowling, buying furniture to decorate the pet’s room, taking the pet to the clinic, and buying clothing or food for the pet.

Social actors and Webkinz Club practices
- Children were heavily engaged in playing-accruing-buying sequences, that is, selecting and playing an arcade game in order to earn lots of KinzCash (e.g. spinning the Wheel of WOW), and then redeeming KinzCash at the Webkinz shopping outlet in order to purchase items for avatars (e.g. buying a new chair for a pet’s room).

Interaction order and attempts to play together in an online with

Reading screens for visual semiotics
- Disruptions were produced in part by a reliance on print in individual screens and in the navigation system that sets up predetermined pathways. The Kinz Clubhouse uses a print-centric navigation path that does not enable easy connectivity for novice players.

Mapping modes in place semiotics
- the children’s goal of establishing the virtual with on screen and maintaining the embodied with in the computer room as the two children worked to sustain an online connection and their offline friendship.

Speech and sound
- children faced barriers that Webkinz (and other websites) had not expected; the muting of computers blocked Webkinz designers’ intentional provision of sound and speech modes that provided spoken guidance for young players.

Proximity and space-time
- The Webkinz Club enabled close embodied and virtual proximity that supported social relationships and allowed children to attempt to play together in ways that would not be possible for children either playing at home or playing at isolated computers surrounded by Wizard 101 players.

Discourses in place
Discourse of adult authority
- In the computer room, the modes of speech and sound were heavily controlled by adults through the discourse of adult authority: adults could speak loudly across the room while children were expected to speak quietly to nearby players and to play quietly with no sounds from their computers so that the computer room noise level would allow children to hear their names when adults spoke over the loudspeaker
- The silencing of Webkinz characters required children to rely on other modes and intensified the modes of gaze, print, and image. Without spoken directions from onscreen characters, children needed to focus on the print and icons in order to make sense of the animation and to navigate the screens.

Web 2.0 discourse
- The children’s manipulation of space-time and their desire to play together meshed with values of connectivity and collaborative meaning production that circulate in a new ethos associated with Web 2.0 (Lankshear and Knobel, 2007).
- A Web 2.0 (Knobel and Wilbur, 2009) discourse shifts our attention from individual interaction with texts and digital technologies to collaborative connections across networks. Participation is the hallmark of Web 2.0 communities and it takes various forms: forming affiliations through virtual worlds (e.g. Webkinz or Second Life) and social net- works (e.g. Facebook or nings), sharing creative expressions (e.g. zines or mashups), collaborative problem solving (e.g. wikis), and circulations (e.g. podcasts, blogs, tweets) (Jenkins et al., 2006).

Playing around barriers in virtual worlds
Barriers to establishing an online with
- We argue that the foregrounding and backgrounding of modes reveal power relations among practices, modes, and discourses. Modes realize a child’s social interest when certain ways of combining modes (e.g. gazing at a computer screen with muted volume, listening to a blaring loudspeaker) support tacitly valued practices that might get a child recognized as a good after-school program member: working alone, responding quickly when called to the front desk.
- a teacher’s insistence on silence and close monitoring of children’s speech and sound in classrooms indexes literacy discourses that legitimate scrupulous control of children’s bodies in school (Boldt, 2001; Luke, 1992).

Navigating discourses in place
- We argue that digital play sediments a player’s gaming habitus into the artifacts produced and saved within Webkinz. Each player’s arcade game scores, phone lists of friends, goods purchased from the Webkinz stores, and room layouts stored in the website’s databases represent layers of previous play experiences and practices: gaming strategies and discourses, player identities and dispositions, and patterns of mouse-handling and familiar paths that navigate avatars around screens.
- the reliance on printed text in the directions that appear on several screens in the Webkinz guide reinscribes an adult authority discourse that assumes children will consult a manual rather than trust their own intuitive screen readings
- consistent with the collaborative problem solving envisioned in Web 2.0 discourse, the children ignored on-screen print directions and relied instead upon intuitive interpretations of the placement and proximity of screen elements.

Conclusion
- Things have meaning, in part, ‘because of where and how they are placed in the material world’ (Scollon and Scollon, 2003).
- the World of Webkinz is situated in a toy franchise that aims to entice young consumers to buy and collect its stuffed toys. Both places shared a concern for internet safety; however, Webkinz gatekeeping measures also feed demand for its products by ensuring that players must be purchasers.
- Web/toys merge play and discourses with technologies and literacies that coordinate meanings with others across time and space. These converged texts shape children’s identities and teach them how to read and respond in particular ways in digital worlds.

Navigating discourses in place in the w…

Learning spaces in higher education: an under-researched topic
by Paul Temple

Introduction
The organizational context of higher education space
Can campus design help teaching and learning?
A community space
Form and function in learning spaces
The need for new design approaches
Technology and learning
Some problems with research on learning spaces
Conclusions

  • how space can support the development of a university community, the needs of specialist spaces, and the impact of technology on space use. Space issues are central to the operation of universities, and further research is needed to illuminate the connections between space and institutional effectiveness.

Introduction
- In work which specifically highlights ‘space’ or ‘environment’, the meaning is usually related to the ways in which teaching and learning are conceptualized or organized, rather than to do with physical arrangements. Instead, consideration of space in higher education has commonly taken place either in the context of space planning, or as part of campus master-planning and architecture, rather than being seen as a resource to be managed as an integral part of teach- ing and learning, and research, activities

The organizational context of higher education space
- the straightforward aim of maximising space use quickly runs into conflict with a range of other institutional objectives, notably those to do with teaching and learning, but also with research and the provision of internal and external services. Settling these conflicts is an unglamorous but essential management task throughout higher education
- space management is certainly related to teaching and learning, in that priorities are set, explicitly or implicitly, for certain teaching and learning uses as against others, in terms of the type of space provided, its location, and the time when it is made available (if it is made available at all). There is, however, little evidence that such decisions are usually informed by an understanding of the relationships between space and the teaching and learning that will go on within it (Barnett and Temple 2006, 11).

Can campus design help teaching and learning?
- thinking about spaces specifically to meet teaching and learning needs appears generally to be hidden from view in most accounts of campus design. Edwards argues that twentieth-century British campuses reflect a struggle, not between different views about teaching and learning, but between ‘place making and the expression of rational, technologically pure architecture’ (2000, 37) – the 1960s campuses of Sussex and York Universities being presented as examples of the former and latter tendencies respectively.
- A critical analysis of American campus design (Whisnant 1971, 88) comes closer to asking questions about how the spatial organisation of the campus affects learning, arguing provocatively that campuses are, in effect, designed to exacerbate ‘division, tension, alienation and strife’ – though these comments relate mainly to inter-departmental rivalries. While Whisnant (radically, for the time) advocates giving students greater autonomy in organising their learning, his proposals for physical changes to improve learning focus on breaking down barriers between the campus and the ‘uncampus’ outside, and mixing teaching, research, administrative and social spaces within it to create a better sense of community.

A community space
- ‘Institutions of higher education are not merely places of instruction. They are communities’,
- How do ideas of community and participatory governance in higher education relate to teaching and learning, and to space? This is an under-researched, but potentially important, field.
- It has been proposed that the physical form of the university is important in supporting its integrated nature, intellectually and socially, and that it is ‘the preservation and development of this integrated form, with its dense network of connections, that provides many of the management and planning challenges in higher education’ and which supports institutional effectiveness (Temple and Barnett 2007, 7). Physical space and intellectual space may, then, be connected through the operation of social networks.
- what university leaders and their architects think people think about their buildings also seems largely unsupported by evidence. When university staff members and students are actually asked about the impressive new buildings in which they are working, their responses tend to fall short of ringing endorsements (Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment 2005). We may also note that it is surely the case that, around the world, the vast majority of university buildings are simply functional standard units, constructed to the designs and standards of other comparable buildings of their place and time; they have no grand message to send.
- on ‘flexible’ learning spaces – spaces in which different groups may be undertaking different activities simultaneously and which lend themselves to a variety of uses (Chism 2006; Joint Information Systems Committee 2006) – has suggested how campus and building design can be used to facilitate learning, particularly informal learning. On the basis that much effective learning takes place as a result of interactions between students, designs need to provide a variety of spaces for them to work and socialise in together (Kuh et al. 2005, 206).
- The importance of creating human-scale learning environments features in the literature. ‘Through buildings, signs, and the landscape of the campus, the physical environment communicates messages that influence students’ feelings of well-being, belonging, and identity’ – and so aids learning (Kuh et al. 2005, 106).
- is students’ learning perhaps helped by their involvement in the creation of social capital, and their uses of it? It seems plausible that one of the influences at work on students, if only to a modest extent, is that of their physical surroundings: Rutter et al.’s 1979 study of secondary schools argued for a link between well-kept buildings, the school as an effectively functioning social institution, and improved learning outcomes.
- I have found no convincing studies on this interplay between physical and social capitals, and learning. We propose that this is an area worthy of further empirical examination.

Form and function in learning spaces
- It is libraries (or learning resource centres, or information commons) which have received most consideration in the literature in terms of their changing roles in enabling learning. The library has traditionally been thought of as being at the heart of a university – and often placed there physically. Despite some predictions that the growth of on-line services would lead to a reduced demand for physical libraries, their development continues (King 2000).
- It is generally recognised in the literature that laboratories, workshops, studios and so on should be seen as spaces with important social dimensions, and that their designs should facilitate social interactions, as well as meeting standard operational requirements. Providing ‘an island of reflection’ in a central atrium, perhaps, or forming an internal ‘street’ linking related spaces, are possibilities that may support social interactions in new or remodeled buildings (Edwards 2000, 100).
- A move towards larger, open-plan laboratories with shared facilities, rather than separate labs for each research team, with adjoining clustered staff offices, is another proposed way of stimulating this type of interaction (Guterman 2004).

The need for new design approaches
- Discussions of a student-centred approach to university design have naturally tended to focus on issues of pedagogy and the curriculum, rather than on the physical environment. Some writers have, however, noted that changed approaches to teaching and learning, including the need to respond to the demands of students from a wider variety of social and educational back- grounds, should carry with them new approaches to design – and that, in particular, teaching and learning should drive design, rather than vice versa (Jamieson et al. 2000; Jamieson 2003).
- It remains the case that a room, with tables and chairs, and a means of displaying information for all to see, remains the basic non-specialist teaching space in higher education. In some cases, a simple change in the layout of the chairs and tables in the room is proposed to facilitate a group discussion, rather than the ex cathedra layout of a lecturer at the front with ranks of students laid out before her or him – while acknowledging that large- group teaching may in fact demand this ‘sage on a stage’ layout. Preferences of both students and teachers seem to be rather similar: comfortable seating, convenient furniture layouts, temperature control and pleasant outside views feature strongly (Douglas and Gifford 2001; Scott-Webber 2004).
- Alexi Marmot Associates architectural practice and the haa design consultancy (Scottish Funding Council 2006), argued that seven types of learning space could be identified in further and higher education. These space types were for:
● group teaching and learning, where flexible furniture arrangements were needed to accommodate groups of varying sizes, using varying layouts, preferably in square rather than rectangular rooms (the former being more adaptable);
● simulated environments, where practical learning can take place in technological subjects or nursing, say, and requiring space for observation as well as for performing the task in hand;
● immersive environments, such as ‘HIVEs’, highly interactive virtual environments, with advanced information and communications technology, possible in many subjects but more likely to be found in scientific or technological ones;
● peer-to-peer environments, where informal learning can take place, in cyber cafés, for example;
● clusters, where student group work can take place, for example in learning centres;
● individual work, in quiet areas;
● external work – areas outside the building suitable for individual or small group activity.

Technology and learning
- Technological advances have been presented as ways of improving pedagogy and/or reducing teaching costs for much of the twentieth century, but actual pedagogic practice has been stubbornly resistant.
- Kress argues that in this ‘new media age’ the screen has replaced the book as the dominant medium of communication. New media make it easy to incorporate multiple communication modes (image, audio, video), and these modes are ‘governed by distinct logics [which] change not only the deeper meanings of textual forms but also the structures of ideas, of conceptual arrangements, and of the structures of our knowledge’ (Kress 2003, 16).

Some problems with research on learning spaces
- As learning is a social activity, campus designs are needed that create welcoming, informal spaces for people to meet and talk, and perhaps to work in small groups.
- One suggestion is that learning is helped by providing students with possibilities for a ‘socially catalytic’ ‘third place’, neither where you live nor work, a place to ‘hang out’, where new relationships may be explored and existing ones deepened (Strange and Banning 2001, 146).
- The conclusion from the literature points to the link between space design and learning outcomes being weak at best, and it may often easily be masked by a number of other factors. A high proportion of the literature makes unsupported, or anecdotal, claims about the benefits of new designs or new configurations of existing space. Where they are presented, empirical findings are usually flawed, as they either tend to report changed student attitudes (rather than learning outcomes), or where learning outcomes are reported, they fail to take account of observer effects of various kinds.
- other work in higher education suggests that students are not overly concerned about the spaces in which they work: ‘it is clear’, reports one recent study, ‘that many of the physical aspects of the University services are not important with regards to student satisfaction’ (Douglas, Douglas, and Barnes 2006, 261). Other studies (for example, Watson 2000, 76; Wiers- Jenssen, Stensaker, and Grogaard 2002; MacDonald 2004) have similarly found that most students place emphasis on the teaching abilities and subject expertise of the staff, tutorial support, library and information technology facilities, and other matters directly related in students’ minds to teaching and learning, rather than on physical facilities.
- recent studies suggest that findings showing that students give a low priority to space issues may have quite wide international validity. In a large-scale survey in a US public university, ‘faculty preparedness’ was found to be the key predictor of student satisfaction, and that ‘different perceptions of campus facilities and services have relatively little affect [sic] on the varying satisfaction of students’ (Thomas and Galambos 2004, 266).
- As with the findings from schools, then, the link in higher education between the physical environment and learning is a complex one, tied up with many other aspects of being a student and a member of an institutional community. But it seems reasonable to conclude that a good standard of basic building care and maintenance is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition of good learning outcomes.

Conclusions
- Understanding the university space is an important element in understanding how universities work – in terms of teaching and learning, but also more broadly. This is a methodologically difficult area, but one that needs more attention.
- campus and university building design needs to give more consideration to the social underpinnings of learning. Providing welcoming and flexible spaces, including informal meeting spaces, should be seen as part of the support to learn- ing through developing the wider learning landscape. The role that such spaces can play, and the most effective design ingredients for them, need further study. Clear technical recommendations are needed on the best ways of providing such spaces in different university settings.
- certain design features can encourage new ideas and creativity. No evidence is available to support this claim, but further research should be encouraged.
- efforts should be made to conduct evaluations of new learning spaces, in order to provide guidance as to the learning benefits, and financial and other costs, associated with them.
- We need a better understanding of the role of space in the dynamics of creating more productive higher education communities and its connections with learning and research. This should be the subject of further research.
- he implications for the design of learning spaces seem to be limited, however; flexibility in space design should be the priority. The rapid (and unanticipated) growth over the past few years in the use of wireless-enabled laptops using broadband networks has meant that the need for specialist information technology spaces may be declining

Learning spaces in higher education: an…

Young children’s literacy in the activity space of the library: A geosemiotic investigation
by Sue Nichols

Introduction
Literature review
Methodology
The library as a destination
The children's activity spaces
The activités
Conclusion

Introduction
- Libraries are repositioning themselves within the landscape of early childhood education.
- The project has taken an ecological approach to children’s socialization into literacy practices in the tradition of ethnographic studies of literacy (Heath, 1983). It has been argued that ‘learning and development cannot be considered apart from the individual’s social environment, the ecological niche’ (Neuman and Celano, 2001: 8)
- children’s learning contexts are multiple and intersecting (Dyson, 1993). As children move between homes, sites of formal education, community sites, play zones, and increasingly online spaces, they experience opportunities to participate in social practices, involving literacy in different ways. The idea of ‘expanded spaces for learning’ has been advanced as taking a more inclusive approach to the range of contexts within which children learn through participation in the activities of daily life (Gutierrez et al., 2007: 69).
- This spatially sensitive approach has been seen in studies of the emplacement of literacy resources in the domestic spaces of children’s homes (Wilkinson, 2003), children’s literacy participation in cyberspaces (Marsh, 2006), and the design of inclusive learning spaces (Flewitt et al., 2009). Taking it to the streets, Neuman and Celano’s (2001) comparative study of the literacy affordances of four neighborhoods involved walking through a block of each neighborhood and systematically noting every store and stand likely to sell reading materials, every sign and its condition, and the characteristics of public spaces where reading could be undertaken.
- the importance of attending to ‘geographies of inequality’ (Lipman, 2005; Vincent et al., 2004) when accounting for differences in literacy resources, access, and opportunities. Mannion and I’anson (2009: 314) caution, furthermore, that a ‘politics of space’ disempowers children as a category of citizens owing to adults’ construction, regulation, and control of the physical and social dimensions of children’s contexts.
- the role of libraries as activity spaces for early and family literacy, it is clearly important to consider issues of power, difference, access, and the values accorded to modes of participation in these spaces.

Literature review
- parents’ and young children’s interactions in library spaces, since parenting can be considered both private and public work (Caputo, 2007; Doucet, 2000)
- the interplay between public and private functions has always been integral to the concept of a library; from its inception the library was ‘a paradox, a building set aside for an essentially private craft (reading) which now was to take place communally’ (Manguel, 2007: 31).
- library architecture impacts on the embodied experience of users as they bring their private experience of reading into the public space
- Some major bookstore chains have ‘incorporated the aesthetics of libraries’ into their design by, for instance, including seating areas so that patrons may read books in comfort, while libraries are ‘fight[ing] back’ by redesigning their spaces to include cafes (Goodall, 2003: 1).
- The library was found to be particularly well-suited to individual goal-directed behavior, for example, study
- The library was also found to be more enabling of non-goal-directed behavior than the bookstore. Patrons were allowed to consume resources and even just ‘hang out’, whereas in the commercial site there were limits to tolerance of non-purchasing behavior
- Library spaces facilitate movement between social and individual, and between goal-directed and unfocused activities.
- little attention to young children’s perspectives

Methodology
- One of these methods is the ‘ecological survey’, modeled on the work of Neuman and Celano (2001).
- his approach involves a purposive and thorough documentation of a particular space, such as a neighborhood, from a particular perspective, or example opportunities to participate in literacy practices. It requires researchers’ willingness to spend considerable periods of time in sites, making multiple visits at different times and employing a range of methods of documentation.
- Geosemiotics incorporates the concepts of place/space and signification, and is an approach to understanding texts in place. Developed by Scollon and Scollon (2003) through their comparative research on city spaces, this frame- work consists of three interacting systems: the interaction order, visual semiotics, and semiotics of place.
- The interaction order describes how people interact in place; to participate in interaction orders, they draw on resources such as their sense of time, perception, repertoire of performances, and on the available signs and props afforded by social spaces. Visual semiotics is con- cerned with how texts and images are ‘read’ in place; here the Scollons draw on the work of Kress and Van Leeuwen (1996, 2001).

The library as a destination
- The relationship between libraries and the families in their communities is multidimensional, comprising geographic, historical, and sociocultural elements in complex interaction
- Libraries reflect in part the resource base of their communities and this impacts their ability to offer services
- the public library may enter into a new alignment with the forces of the mall as a means of engaging with families who may not identify with the library’s traditional presence.

The children's activity spaces
- Children’s spaces in all locations were characterized by design elements of curved shapes and bright colors

The activities
- Incorporating verbal responses and actions from children harnessed, to an extent, their natural tendency to move and make noise. This also had the impact of producing two categories of children’s embodied participation – the appropriate and the inappropriate.
- One of the key geosemiotic aspects of all sessions was the dance produced by negotiations between children’s independent movements and adults’ regulation of children’s bodies

Conclusion
- Libraries have always been learning spaces but in relation to the early years, this role is now being formally recognized and resourced to a greater extent than ever before. This makes it important for early childhood researchers to build knowledge about young children and their carers’ experiences in libraries
- In library sessions, children are learning how to orientate towards an adult, how to follow instructions, and how to behave as a member of a collective. Children who learn these lessons as toddlers will find behaving as a class member in school more familiar than those who do not

Young children’s literacy in the activi…

Multicultural School Gardens: Creating Engaging Garden Spaces in Learning about Language, Culture, and Environment
by Amy Cutter-Mackenzie

Abstract
Resume
Children's School Gardening Movement
Multicultural School Gardens Program
Mode of Inquiry
Data Presentation and Analysis
- Inquiry into Practice—Dalem Primary School
- A Community of Learners
- Gardening and Teaching English as a Second Language
- Nature/Environment Connections
Concluding and Synthesizing Comments

Abstract
- revealing how a culturally diverse school with a high proportion of migrant and refugee families created an engaging garden space
- This space led to a strong sense of belonging among students who were formerly dislodged from their birthplaces, together with providing opportunities for learning English language and forming connections to the local environment.

Children’s School Gardening Movement
- work towards tackling societal concerns such as child- hood obesity and environmental sustainability
- Relf claims that “one of the areas of human culture most neglected by social science and the humanities is the garden” (as cited in Miller, 2007, p.16)
- benefits include positive influences on student health and well-being, environmental attitudes, academic performance, physical activity, and social skills
- The desire to enable children to experience “slow,” or less technologically-focused experiences

Multicultural School Gardens Program
- use a whole-school, multidisciplinary approach to the curriculum; model the garden on environmental sustainability practices
- empower schools by enabling students to plan and implement a real environmental project
- stimulate creativity and celebrate diversity
- contribute to student health and wellbeing build upon volunteer contributions
to community well-being and encourage their ongoing support; and strengthen and build the social and educational capacity within the school
- incorporate the practice of “gardening buddies,” namely parents/guardians/grandparents (typically new arrivals to Australia) as well as community members working with children in creating food gardens

Mode of Inquiry
- the children themselves would bring new and valid views and voices to the research process that may not have been ascertained otherwise
- All student researchers were invited to capture their experiences by keep- ing journals, taking photographs, and interviewing students, teachers, parents, and community members about their multicultural school gardens experiences. The students participated in a research training process, learning data collection skills, specifically those related to documenting observations, photographing, and interviewing

Data Presentation and Analysis

Inquiry into Practice—Dalem Primary School

A Community of Learners
- how the garden (space) led to “a sense of belonging for students newly arrived to the country that was an ongoing challenge for the school previously.”
- The data also revealed that the garden program acted as an engaging space for teaching and learning English as a Second Language.

Gardening and Teaching English as a Second Language
- “Slowing down” was a common statement made by students when describing their garden experience. They reported that other aspects of school and their daily lives can often be “rushed.”

Nature/Environment Connections

Concluding and Synthesizing Comments
- At Dalem Primary School the multicultural school gardens program was associated exclusively with the English as a Second Language program with a particular focus on the new migrants from Afghanistan and the Sudan ranging in ages from 6-12 years of age.
- It was observed that the children’s culture became a rich source of “everyday conversation” in the garden spaces, in addition to acting as a space for improved cultural awareness and sensitivity among the students and teachers. These spaces acted as a key pedagogical opportunity, or address, (McKenzie, 2008) for teaching English as a Second Language.
- In the case of Dalem Primary School, the multicultural school gardens program, presented a medium (or space) for slow and experientially driven pedagogies, allowing opportunities for intercultural and environmental learning experiences.
- children were seeking a nature or environment connection (Wake, 2008), particularly one that made them feel empowered in their environmental behavior and actions.
- The program led to the development of a “space” that facilitated a strong sense of belonging among students who were formerly dislodged from their birthplaces, coupled with enhanced opportunities in learning English language (an essential skill in living in any Western culture) and forming connections to the local environment.

Multicultural School Gardens: Creating …

Science and Technology Education in the STES Context in Primary Schools: What Should It Take?
By Uri Zoller
J Sci Educ Technol (2011) 20:444–453

Introduction
Rationale, Conceptual Framework and Purpose
Science and ‘‘STES literacy’’ in Primary Schools
Science and Technology Learning in the STES Context
- A Guiding Model for Research-Based Curriculum Development
- The Crucial Role of Assessment
‘HOCS Learning’: What should it take?...and How should it be done?

Introduction
- a need for paradigms shift in conceptualization, thinking, research, science, and technology, as well as in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education, to be consonant with interdisciplinary, transferable teaching strategies and alternative, to the traditional, assessment methodologies.

Rationale, Conceptual Framework and Purpose
- the common perception that the main task of the public educational systems is to advance students up the classes ladder, based on their passing of disciplinary LOCS— based, algorithmic knowledge tests (Zoller 1993; Zoller et al. 1995).
- ‘Excellence’’ and/or ‘‘Excelling’’ is thus being measured and perceived according to the pupils/students ‘‘grade achievement’’—as the exclusive criterion.
- to prepare students for an excellent personal and societal performance, as motivated curious citizens, eager to learn and inquire; being active and involved and capable of question asking critical, creative and system evaluative thinking, analysis of unfamiliar situations, making decisions, solving problems and, most important, take responsibility for their consequent action and behavior, accordingly (Zoller, 1993, 1994, 1999, 2000a, b; Zoller and Levy Nahum 2011, Levy Nahum et al. 2010).
- This alternative means: No more ‘‘preparing’’ students to become effective performing citizens in society by imparting mainly, disciplinary knowledge, via ‘test wise- ness’-oriented, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS) level algorithmic teaching- to- know’ instruction. Rather, the development and fostering of ‘HOCS learning’ and transfer, as the ‘‘king’s road’’ for empowering students toward rational, effective, excellence and responsible active participation in whatever role they will play in society, in the future.
- the need for designing science teaching, assessment and learning within a challenging curriculum, targetted at promoting learners’ capability of generating ideas and alternatives, rather than just selecting among already given/available alternatives (Zoller and Scholz 2004).

Science and ‘‘STES literacy’’ in Primary Schools
- the need for developing our pupils’ and students’ ‘scientific literacy’ with relevance to everyday life problems and socio-scientific decisions
- The standards-driven progress that all students should learn, as they make progress toward science literacy (NSTA 2005), is supposed, and expected, to increase the scientific literacy (AAAS 2010; Millar 2006) of the (US) nation’s students.
- Nearly one-third of states lowered their academic proficiency standards in recent years (a step that helps schools stay ahead of sanctions under the No Child Left Behind Law) (New York Times, 2009).
- children are naturally curious, the extend of which is, apparently, each individuals personality trait dependant. They keep asking questions to others around them and quite often come up with their own ‘solutions’ to the ‘problems’ they are confronted with, occasionally following their turning their questions into a ‘‘mini quest’’.
- primary science and technology education, is expected to meaningfully contribute to a shift from—providing, by students, one correct answer, to questions asked (by teachers, or in exams) and the resolving of these (mainly) algorithmic exercises (LOCS)—to question asking and problem solving, both HOCS

Science and Technology Learning in the STES Context
A Guiding Model for Research-Based Curriculum Development
The Case of the STES-Oriented STEMS Curriculum Project
- Therefore, the STEMS curriculum supported students in formulating their own views on the issues in focus and in their thinking concerning what it means to act wisely, justly and responsibly in socio-environmental contexts (Hodson 2003, 2004).
- requires the shifting from focusing on ‘what should our students know in order to succeed in the final examination?’’—to ‘How should our students be able to think, decide, solve/resolve, do and act responsibly (Zoller 1993, 2000a, b; Zoller and Levy Nahum 2011). This raises the issue of assessment of both— students’ learning in day-to-day school practice and results/ findings of the related educational research

The Crucial Role of Assessment
- t is no wonder that class or external examinations and tests, mostly on the LOCS- level, have turned the assessment into the master, rather than the servant, of teaching, learning, curriculum and education, science education in particular.
- curriculum development is instructional-educational goals-targeted, the assessment methodology applied determines the type, quality and level of their attainment.

‘HOCS Learning’: What should it take?...and How should it be done?
- The superordinate goal of this strategic approach is the achieving of a person capable of the ‘Decision Making- Problem Solving Act’
- Look at the problem and its implications, and recognize it as a problem.
- Understand the factual core of knowledge and concepts involved.
- Appreciate the significance and meaning of various alternative possible solutions (resolutions)
- Exercise the problem-solving act:
• Recognize/select the relevant data information;
• Analyze it for its reasonableness, reliability and
validity;
• Devise/plan appropriate procedures/strategies for
future dealing with the problem(s).
- Apply value judgments (and be prepared to defend!)
- Apply the Decision Making act:
• Make a rational choice between available alter- natives, or generate new options;
• Make a decision (or take a position)
- Act according to the decision made.
- Take responsibility!
- Learning’ is attainable and can be done, it should be done!!! and implemented—at all levels of science and technology education, primary education included.

Science and Technology Education in the…

Using Guided Play to Enhance Children's Conversation, Creativity and Competence in Literacy
by Ya-Lun Tsao
Education Vol. 128 No. 3

Introduction
Views of Early Literacy
- Historical View
- Current View
Relationship Between Play and Literacy
- The Piagetian View
- The Vygotskian View
Literacy and Play in the Curricula
- Roskos and Neauman's Literacy Play Model
- Storybook-based Curricula
Conclusion

Introduction
- Competence in language allows young children to communicate with others, enables them to learn and grow, and enriches their lives.
- While children play and communicate, they are learning intuitively how language works, practicing its many nuances, and gaining insights into the meaning of written language.
- literacy is the competence to interpret the prospective message in symbols and use it to communicate with others.
- The contribution of play to children's literacy development has been much studied and, as a result, has prompted much research activity over several decades. That play and literacy share common boundaries in developing the minds of young children is an intriguing idea (Roskos & Christie, 2004).
- strong evidence exists that play: (a) serves literacy by providing settings that promote literacy activity, skills, and strategies; (b) provides a language experience that builds connections between oral and written modes of expression; and (c) provides opportunities to teach and learn literacy.

Views of Early Literacy
- children's literature promotes an appreciation for the wonder of language, sparks the imagination, re-lives everyday experiences, and shares lives and information.

Historical View
- During the 20th century, children were considered to be non-readers before they entered school and began formal reading instruction
- the historical view of reading and reading readiness kept many children from exactly what they needed—reading instruction and practice.

Current View
- young children often acquire books and imitate adults by turning pages and reading aloud
- early literacy is a time for young children to explore and discover the world that, in this period of children's literacy development, requires teachers' intervention.
- the current thought on children's literacy is from a socio-cultural perspective, which assumes that learning is a social process.
- children's developing literacy occurs in a social setting through processes of scaffolding.
- Through early exposure to reading and writing, young children learn many things about written language (McDevitt & Ormrod, 2007)
- children begin learning about reading and writing in infancy.

Relationship Between Play and Literacy
- play can offer ideal experiences for children to integrate literacy into their understandings.
- Opportunities to use tools associated with literacy before starting formal instruction seem to advance children's understanding of the reading and writing processes

The Piagetian View
- engaging in make-believe play may develop cognitive skills that facilitate children's learning related to reading and writing.
- the interface between play and literacy is that children must recall facts and experiences held in memory to make new contextual meanings, which is at the level of representation (Roskos & Christie, 2004)

The Vygotskian View
- Vygotsky's sociocultural development theory, considers the influences of culture and social understandings on children's play and their incorporation into literacy activity
- the social interactions between individuals as the sources for building children's literacy knowledge
- play provides opportunities to expose children to literacy concepts and skills. Play also promotes elaboration of literate thinking through more complex social exchanges
- In pretend play, the need for coordinated social actions with others gives rise to opportunities that involve literate ways of thinking as well as the use of literacy knowledge and skills.

Literacy and Play in the Curricula
- The literacy-enriched environment in play results in increased amounts of literacy activities during play.
- play intervention can facilitate children's literacy development and reveal different ways adults can interact with young children during the activities.

Roskos and Neauman's Literacy Play Model
- The Roskos and Neuman literacy play model assumed children usually engage in literacy routines, such as reading and writing actions observed in the real world during social-dramatic play.
- during make behave play, children write down a grocery list just as they have seen adults do.
- teachers are able to enhance literacy play through thoughtful interventions that place an emphasis on adult modeling

Storybook-based Curricula
- attempt to strike balances between structured and unstructured play so as to maximize learning (Hookham, 2006).
- storybook-based curricula are able to develop effectively literacy skills not only with normal children but also with children with special needs.
- Storybook-based curricula encourage young children to participate actively in a literacy-rich environment of playful activities that foster cognitive, language, social, and motor development (Linder, 1999).
- A typical "story- book-based classroom" requires an activity book, a videotape, and "storybook bags" for teachers, as well as copies of sample lesson plans for each story used

Conclusion
- Play that involves literacy allows children to show what they already know about the reading and writing system (Miller, 1998).
- play offers children opportunities to practice and refine social, cognitive, and literacy skills since, apparently, a number of characteristics of play provide special motivation and opportunities for young children's literacy learning (Rowe, 2000).
- play and dramatic play provide specific opportunities for children's meaningful involvement in literacy development.
- Pretend play has a crucial role in young children's literacy development, because children's use of pretend talk and symbolism relate to literacy.
- role play and make-believe acts, supports the development of literate, oral language because young children are motivated to generate explicit and elaborated language for their play (Frost et al., 2001).
- children will prepare for success in the formal reading and writing instruction while being involved in literacy play activities.

Using Guided Play to Enhance Children's…