Please do NOT link "Projection Mapping" content. That ain't this!
Sometime last summer I was on an airplane viewing the screen in front of me in GPS mode. I didn't understand why the aircraft's trajectory on the map was going in an upwards arc, and decided to ask the flight attendant.
She proceeded to explain that the aircraft actually gets to the destination faster when it travels higher on the globe, and that it actually has to do with gravitational forces and jet streams.
Assuming this was half bullshit, I looked it up later and learned this: Any "flat" map (digital, printed, etc) other than a physical globe is a projection of some sort, attempting to replicate a spherical (3D) surface onto a flat (2D) surface. No matter how you do it, you can't illustrate a 3D surface in 2D with 100% accuracy—areas must be skewed—hence creating the upward "arc" we experience on the airplane's GPS view (In actuality, on a globe, that arc was the direct shortest distance between the two locations—it only appeared as an arc because it had to be flattened)
The standard map projection used everywhere (including airlines) is called the Mercator Projection. But it has major flaws in that it dramatically distorts the sizes of Antarctica and Greenland. It also makes Africa appear entirely too small (and if you ask me, that's worse).
Last year in 2016, a new projection called "AuthaGraph" (which sounds like a graffiti-based RPG game on Sega Dreamcast) was released by Tokyo-based architect and artist Hajime Narukawa. Although this is now considered the most accurate projection of land mass to date, personally I think it's too abstract for standardized world usage—at least at the present day.
ANYWAYS this channel is a collection of different map projections, not comprehensive but the channel is OPEN so please assist. Will update when I can!!!