Written Questions for a panel:
Questions are asked via index cards, spread throughout the audience via volunteers. A moderator/facilitator receives them, scans them, and asks particularly interesting/wise/helpful ones of the panel.
The facilitator can summarize, condense, and combine multiple questions; they can also get a sense of importance or weight by finding similar/shared questions.
The facilitator can scan for bad questions, and also gender/race representation of question-askers isn’t ever a problem, and it also stops runaway questions.