Main article: Familiar spirit
"Power animal" is a concept that was introduced in 1980 by Michael Harner in The Way of the Shaman. While Harner took inspiration from his study of animistic beliefs in many different cultures, his concept of power animals is much like the familiar spirits of European occultism, which aid the occultist in their metaphysical work.
The use of this term has been incorporated into the New Age movement, where it is often mistaken for being the same as a totem in some indigenous cultures. The concept has also entered popular culture in various forms, such as in the 1999 film (and earlier novel) Fight Club, when the narrator attends a cancer support group. During a creative visualization exercise, he is told to see himself entering a cave where he will meet his power animal. When he does, he imagines a penguin is speaking to him.
Intertwined lives : Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, and their circle
Banner, Lois W.| BOOK/TEXT | 2003
With a daughter's eye : a memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson
Bateson, Mary Catherine. | BOOK/TEXT | 1984
The trashing of Margaret Mead : anatomy of an anthropological controversy
Shankman, Paul. BOOK/TEXT | 2009
Return from the natives : how Margaret Mead won the Second World War and lost the Cold War
Mandler, Peter. | BOOK/TEXT | 2013
Blackberry winter; my earlier years
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. | BOOK/TEXT | 1972
The fateful hoaxing of Margaret Mead : a historical analysis of her Samoan research
Freeman, Derek. | BOOK/TEXT | 1999