Using the five whys method: why do people use this app? What emotions are associates? (Eg email associated with fear of missing out) 

Research just enough: stop asking what people want and study what they do, if there’s a discrepancy then there’s an interesting habit to study 
The 5 whys

Action = Motivation + ability + trigger
- always seek to create trigger, then decrease ability (make product simpler and easier to use), then increase motivations

Four heuristic/biases
1. Scarcity heuristic: users view scarce items as more valuable. Wine that cost more (fewer people can buy) are perceived as better quality  
2. Anchoring: anchor one piece of info when making decision. Buying clothes: 2 for 99 but if you buy one it’s cheaper, users associate the loud signs as cheaper
3. Delayed progress: punch cards with punches that are already punched a bit vs blank punch cards (already have made some progress). 
- tap can asks users to save some stories or show progress somehow for new users!!

- the hunt: 
- Different types of rewards
    - Hunt: uncertainty, people love to hunt and get variable reward
    - Tribe: social feedback, want validation from social
    - Self: alignment with internal goals and triggers 
        - Gamification: do people even have an itch? If it helps people get rid of their itch then YES! Does it align with people’s internal triggers? 
        - ***”But you are free to accept or refuse”, freedom to choose makes users more likely to agree. “But you are free” means they’re not forced to do anything. 




** Highlight whats important and then

What is gamification?
Learning from games and what makes games so engaging and what games can do.
- The use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game context

Why Gamify?
- To close an engagement gap
- Choices/variety. If an app is very unitary then people don’t engage to it as much.
- Progression. E.g. If checking in the app the first time feels like checking in the 60th time, then users won’t have much motivation to come back.
- Social: I want to come back to engage with my friends
- Thus creating a Habit

Think like a Game Designer:
- Consumers -> Players
- Players are the centre of a game
- The game revolves around the player
- Plays feel a sense of control, choices/variety
- Choices that have impact and meaning
- Players play
- Free motion in constraint.
- Goal:
- Get players to play the game and keep them playing

Game Rules:
- Journey:
- Onboarding: getting the user in the game
- Scaffolding: providing training wheels, so that users don’t get stuck in the middle of the game
- Plants vs Zombies example
- Guides
- Highlighting
- Feedback
- Limited option when starting out
- Make sure that it’s IMPOSSIBLE to fail at this point
- Feel like achieving something (lead to pathway to mastery)
- Pathway to mastery: make sure that the user made some achievements and learn some real skill
- Balance
- Make sure that values/rules in the game are balanced so that it’s still fun to play
- E.g. monopoly, if one of the boardwalks cost 2x as much to buy, it’s going to make the game imbalanced
- Design levels to be not too hard/too easy
- Experience
- Make the experience fun, not just doing the task

Making things fun:
- Winning
- v.s. Triumphing (you win, someone else lose)
- Problem solving
- Exploring, finding something new
- Chilling out, just enjoying the experience
- Teamwork
- Recognition
- Collecting
- Surprise
- Imagination: thinking of ideas
- Sharing: people feel good about charity
- Role Playing
- Customization: making something your own
- Goofing off: exploring the opportunity to just be silly.
- Anatomy of Fun:
- Easy fun: chilling out, not hectic
- Had fun: mastery/completion/overcoming obstacles/problem solving
- Social fun
- Serious fun: fun in doing things that are meaningful (e.g. personal development, saving the planet)
- E.g. Collecting badges
- Another framework: 8 types of fun:

Game Elements: elements alone are not the game. You need to look at how to design
- Things that make up the game (e.g. avatars, levels, points…)
- Dynamics (the grammar): the big picture, implicit rules and conceptual elements
- Constraints
- Emotions
- Narrative
- Progression
- Relationships
- Mechanics (the verbs): actions that move the user forward from one state to next
- Challenges
- Chance/Luck
- Competition
- Cooperation
- Feedback
- Resource Acquisition: collecting coins etc
- Rewards
- Transaction
- Turns
- Win States
- Components (the nouns): elements we use to do higher level things like mechanics and dynamics.
- Achievements
- Avatars
- Boss fights
- Collections
- Combat
- Content Unlocking
- Gifting
- Levels
- Quests
- Social Graph
- Teams
- Virtual Goods
- Points: keeping score, 100 pts vs 5000 pts
- Keep score and determine win states
- Connect to rewards
- Provide feedback real time
- Display progress
- Fungible: points are a currency to create a system where one action can be equivalent to another action (e.g. leverage that to saying going on a quest is equivalent to watching an ad)
- Leaderboards
- Feedback on competition, relative to other players
- Might demotivate, try friend relative leaderboards
- Badges
- PBL: most popular triad
- Representation of achievement
- Flexible element, can represent anything and motivate any behavior
- Signalling what is mportance in the game
- Credentials: here is what I’ve done, so everyone can see (similar to diploma)
- Collection: show progress of filling up trophy case

Rewards are not always fun
Fun is not always rewarding

Cookie cutter experience: if I just earned badges from another app, I don’t want to do the same thing on this one, burnout.

Limitations of the Element-Only Approach
Elements don’t solely make up the game. What happens when you try to gamify an experience by only using elements?
Bad example: Google news let users earn badges depending on what you read (read sports news, get a sports badge). However, not compelling. Why would user get rewarded on just reading a basketball article? Then it’s not really an reward, and not really motivating me to do anything else. Doesn’t drive any real value.
- Meaningful choices: if the choice is not something that requires the user to make an active choice, then engaging to the user.
- Puzzles: not the same as challenges, need problem solving.
- Mastery: Getting a badges or points (which are more like staircases) doesn’t give full confidence in mastery in “skill”.
- Community
- Different kinds of users: People are different, so if the game only has one structure it’s not going to engage people with different motivations.

- People make mistakes consistently
- Loss aversion: people are more concerned about losses than gains.
- Condition though consequences: Farmville needs checking or else crops will wither
- Power of defaults
- Confirmation bias: people tend to see what they’re looking for, they want to see patterns weather or not they are actually there.
- Intrinsic Motivation
- User is doing action because of the action itself, not for any consequences/reward
- Extrinsic Motivation
- About the reward, but not about the action it self
- Status (easiest to implement and also the most powerful)
- Access
- Power
- Stuff

  • Types of reward:

    • Tangible/intangible reward: physical reward (money) vs virtual badge
    • Expected/unexpected reward
    • Contingency:
      • Task non-continent: don’t have to do anything and get reward
      • Engagement contingent: activated by engagement
      • Completion: activated by completion
      • Performance contingent: You have to do well to get the reward
    • Reward schedules
      • Continuous: might not feel like a reward.
      • Fixed ratio: if activity happens a certain number of times, then every n number of time you get it. Every 3/5/7th time you get a reward
      • Fixed interval: every 3 interval of time, you get a reward
      • Variable: no fixed schedule, people love surprises. Have randomness involved
        • Slot machines work the same way
  • Sometimes rewards can de-motivate, makes user think they’re doing it for the reward and not the task itself (less intrinsic motivation than before)

    • ^Only happens to creative/interesting tasks, with some sort of intrinsic motivation to start with
    • To fix this, we can provide tangible, unexpected and preformance-contingent reward to solve this problem.

Amotivation: none whatsoever
Extrinsic: doing the task for rewards
- External regulation: only reason to do task is because someone/something has to keep telling you to do it
- Introjection: I don’t want to do it but other people would like it if I do it, so I will do it. (I’m taking their view of status and appropriating myself to do it)
- Identification: Taking the external motivator and taking it as my own. I can see how it somehow aligns with my personal goals
- Integration: Complete alignment with personal goals but need some external push. (e.g. exercise)
Intrinsic: doing the task for myself
- Need 3 characters to make task intrinsic:
- Competence: user is achieving something in the activity
- Autonomy: user feels like they are in control, meaningful choices
- Relatedness: connected to something else (e.g. goals/meaning/social/personal growth)

- List and rank possible business objectives
- Target behaviours
- Specific: why are you gamifying this?
- Success metrics (what makes this gamification project a win?)
- Analytics: DAU/MAU
- Who are the players? What are their motivations?
- Bartle MMOG Player Type Model (a typical player will go back and forth from each of these quadrants)
- Achiever: want to have achievement and have recognition by acting with the things in the world (e.g. quests)
- Explorers: want to see what is possible with the world. Push to the limits of the game by interacting with elements of the world
- Socializers: Care about interacting with others, being in a part of the community
- Killers: Don’t want to just win the game, but to also destroy/heal players (or healers also fit in this category), often the most aggressive player

Activity Loops: what keeps players playing
- Engagement Loop: (often happens at an individual level) Motivation -> Action -> Feedback -> Motivation
- Progression Loop: To accomplish this goal, you must complete these small subtasks. (Level up to 30 and you become a mage)
- Motivated by the potential of the end goal and encouraged by the achievable subtask right before their eye.

Know your users
- Badges on foursquare: designed to look cool, so that users feel COOL after checking into a place
- Badges on stack overflow: designed for nerds, lots of numbers and information, no visual clutter just goes right into the info

Gamification Course

- What is more effective in persuading someone to do something?
    - Focus on the small portion of progress
        - In earlier stages, it’s more important to focus on the progress that the user has already done. (Smaller portion of progress, 20% completed!)
        - In the later stages, it’s more important to focus on the progress remaining. (Smaller portion of progress remaining, only 20% to go!)
    - When negotiating, always make your first offer more precise (Selling a car, give you $1897 or $2000?)
        - Precise offers seem more calculated, like you’ve put a lot of thought into calculating that number
    - To let users commit to something, you need where/when/how?
    - Social proof: conformity means making accurate decisions, social affirmation, desire to see self in positive light (so many people who pay tax, people who don't feel like they don't put in their share)
        - What if the majority are NOT carrying out the behavior?
            - Don't make up a majority, not credible and ethical.
            - Mention what people consider norms: "80% of people think it's important to donate to charities"
            - Make sure message aligns with the social identity of the user: e.g. Canadians pay taxes vs bramptonians pay taxes. 
                - Which group do they want to belong to??
        - There are "emotional cost" going against a social norm
    - Small disorder can cause big disorder (graffiti can lead to bigger crimes)
    - Cocktail phenomenon: people love hearing their names, give more attention to what you have to say.
    - General commitments are easier to make, but people are more likely to keep specific commitments. Specific commitments can influence user to make other changes similar to the change they committed to. (Help the environment vs saving towels, people who save towels will also be more likely to turn off lights)
        - Step one: initial commitment has to be specific
        - Step two: environment must have cues for user to make similar commitments (signs to remind them to turn off lights)
        - Badge to remind them, where the badge show users their sense of ownership. Public vs private badges. behaviour
    - Implementation Intentions: if there's a delay from users agreement to the actual action, then asking them WHEN they'll actually do it, WHERE, and what will you be doing before hand? (hOW)
    - Future plans in the near future are more realistic vs distance future are more abstract
        - Users asked to think about plan on the distant future(6 months from now vs right away)are going to think more about if they should do it and less about f they want to do it (so more likely to say yes)
        - Right now: concrete terms, I can't go shopping today, I'll have less money today
        - Vs
        - Later in the future: abstract terms, bigger picture and align with their values and morals
        - This is why free trials work well, make them sign up for free with no immediate commitments so that they think about the service long term benefits.
    - Asking user to make small active choice in the beginning can make sure that they stick to their goal. 
        - People hate to lose something or fear of missing out, so if you frame the active choice as in fear of losing then it's more effective (I will not get the flu shot even though I will miss out on saving 50 bucks and have a chance of getting the flu)
        - If want to influence user to switch to premium, always show pop up to have two choices: updating the new plan OR reminding them what they're missing out on by continuing with their normal plan
    - Be the first to give, and the returns will be big. (E.g. Free samples)
    - Stamp cards asking users to buy 12 items with no sequence preform not as well as a card asking user to buy 12 item in a particular sequence. 
        - If motivation levels are lower rigid might work better than flexible
        - Reduce number of choice, better 
    - Peak end: people usually remember the peak of their emotion and the end of the experience 
        - Save best for last gives the best effect (best interpreted experience)

The Small Big