Early studies by Thomas Edison for his Kinetoscope machine determined that any rate below 46 images per second "will strain the eye." and this holds true for projected images under normal cinema conditions also. The solution adopted for the Kinetoscope was to run the film at over 40 frames/sec, but this was expensive for film. However, by using projectors with dual- and triple-blade shutters the flicker rate is multiplied two or three times higher than the number of film frames — each frame being flashed two or three times on screen. A three-blade shutter projecting a 16 fps film will slightly surpass Edison's figure, giving the audience 48 images per second. During the silent era projectors were commonly fitted with 3-bladed shutters. Since the introduction of sound with its 24 frame/sec standard speed 2-bladed shutters have become the norm for 35 mm cinema projectors, though three-bladed shutters have remained standard on 16 mm and 8 mm projectors, which are frequently used to project amateur footage shot at 16 or 18 frames/sec.
It’s a subtle difference. But experts who subscribe to Dawkins’s extended phenotype idea, like Vollrath at Oxford, believe that webs are more like tools the spider uses. “The web is actually a computer, as it were,” he said. “It processes information and simplifies it.” In this view, webs evolved over time like an extension of the spider’s body and sensory system — not so much its mind. Vollrath’s lab will soon embark on a project to test just how webs help the spiders solve problems from the extended phenotype perspective, he said.
But before they were melded into our collective consciousness, all abstractions and pieces of knowledge were once personal—woven within the mind of an individual, or a set of individuals in parallel—and only then distributed across time and space to be shared.
Perhaps most significantly for filmmakers, benshi would add their own commentary, explaining what was happening in a shot or describing what had happened in confusing edits or sudden transitions. Some benshi were known to interpret and add to a script, for example reciting poetry to accompany a moving visual.
This meant that filmmakers could assume that a live narrator, accustomed to improvisation, would be present at the showing to explain scenes or even explain missing scenes or unfilmed action.
Due to the influence of kabuki, audiences were not distracted by a single benshi voicing male and female roles, regardless of the gender of the benshi.
"the essential thing – which no one else could do for you – was to exercise your judgement and taste" stanislavski
If you have to conjure up the thoughts and you have to articulate the thoughts, then they change you.
The central instruments in a photo player were a piano and percussion; some machines also added pipe organs and methods for manually creating sound effects. Like a player piano, the photo player played music automatically by reading piano rolls (rolls of paper with perforations), but the photo player could hold two rolls: one that would play while the other was prepared. Common sound effects included gunshots, bells and drums, which were generated by pulling chains called "cow-tails". Some photo players feature electric sound effects, such as sirens, automobile horns, and other oddities. A photo player operator had to load the paper rolls, start the machine and add the manual sound effects and percussion using the cow-tails.
Is there a specific method or resource that you recommend people use during the design process to get their thoughts in order?
Totally. I would create a series of user stories of how you ideally want people to use your thing. Then—and this is from a design class I took with Clay—articulate all the ways this could possibly go wrong. So if you’re making a rideshare app, Clay’s suggestion would be to ask, “What happens when someone takes the car across the border and lights it on fire? What are you going to do?” It’s thinking about all the things that you intended to do, and then poking holes in how that could possibly go wrong.
«Keep reminding yourself of the way things are connected, of their relatedness. All things are implicated in one another and in sympathy with each other. This event is the consequence of some other one. Things push and pull on each other, and breathe together, and are one.» Marcus Aurelius
Using virtual reality modelling, the architects tested countless layouts with prison staff, tweaking corridor widths and lengths, adjusting ceiling heights and modelling acoustics to come up with a layout that struck a balance between prisoner rehabilitation and operational efficiency – the two chief parameters of prison design, usually diametrically opposed, with the latter generally coming out on top.
Mas para que seja verdadeiramente integradora, a educação não deve destruir o que de positivo exista nos indivíduos ou nas sociedades e não deve, portanto, construir um processo de imposição de conceitos, mas antes um processo de troca de conceitos, um dar e receber que não destrua mas valorize, tendo como intenção criar uma sociedade unitária, embora diversificada, una mas não uniforme, em que o indivíduo seja tão livre como integrado numa comunidade de interesses; caso contrário a educação transformar-se-á em mais uma máquina que o homem cria para se cilindrar a si próprio.