On consumption as a civic constraint, Eisenhower stated in 1958: 'In a free society, government best encourages economic growth when it encourages the efforts of individuals and private groups. The government will never spend money as profitably as an individual tax-payer would have were he freed from the burden of taxation.' It is as though consumption, while not being a direct impost, might effectively succeed taxation as a social levy. 'With nine million dollars of tax cuts,' adds Time magazine, 'consumers went to two million retail stores in search of prosperity ... They realized that they could increase economic growth by replacing their fans with air-conditioners.