They believed that language, developed before science, was not as well suited for scientific communication as other means, especially visual ones. By 1878, most natural scientists agreed with what French physiologist Étienne-Jules Marey had said on the value of graphical representation:
There is no doubt that graphical expression will soon replace all others whenever one has at hand a movement or change of state—in a word, any phenomenon. Born before science, language is often inappropriate to express exact measures or definite relations.
As the decade draws to a close, organizers at the forefront of nightlife are challenging the notion of the club as a means of escapism—deciding to confront reality head-on from critical, reparative frameworks.