The vis plastica theory assumed that fossils were freaks of nature ( ludus naturæ ), stones that simulated living beings, impossible chimeras. The theory did not have many supporters in the scientific field, as it was easily refuted, although some tried to support it by creating fossils that represented modern objects to demonstrate the caprice of nature, a hoax quickly exposed.
The Eleanor crosses were a series of twelve tall and lavishly decorated stone monuments topped with crosses erected in a line down part of the east of England. King Edward I had them built between 1291 and about 1295 in memory of his beloved wife Eleanor of Castile. The King and Queen had been married for 36 years and she stayed by the King’s side through his many travels. While on a royal progress, she died in the East Midlands in November 1290. The crosses, erected in her memory, marked the nightly resting-places along the route taken when her body was transported to Westminster Abbey near London.